A business where it is necessary to use heavy machinery requires special attention towards the safety of the workers and machines on the site. Every employee should know these machines and their procedures to avoid fatal accidents. Among many machines, cranes and rigging played a role in lifting or shifting objects from one place to another. OSHA and other workers and employers’ safety organizations produce a regulation of crane using and rigging to protect workers and money. OSHA standard 1926.753 provides complete rules and regulations of crane, rigging, and hoisting.
CRANE AND ITS OPERATIONS:
Cranes are heavy machines that use to lift and shift objects from one place to another. Crane uses hoist rope, cable ropes, and sheaves to connect with loads for transportation. Crane design has evolved to satisfy the needs of a wide range of industrial applications, and modern cranes frequently coordinate simple components to perform complicated lifting tasks – sometimes in hazardous situations for humans.
Different types of cranes employ for specific tasks. These types include:
- Telescopic Crane.
- Mobile Cranes.
- Truck Mounted Crane.
- Tower Crane.
- Rough Terrain Crane.
- Overhead Crane.
- Bridge Crane.
- Crawler Crane.
- Aerial Crane.
- Hydraulic Crane.
- Carry Deck Crane.
- Floating Crane.
- Bulk-handling Crane.
- Hammerhead Crane.
- Stacker Crane.
- Railroad Crane.
- Harbor Cranes.
- Level Luffing Crane.
That is the most significant part because it requires a vigilant supervisor, attentive operator, and other workers. The crane is enough to create a disaster on the site, and these accidents are very harsh. So, every possible worker of crane operation should know their responsibilities and jobs to make sure the lifting or shifting without any trouble.
As the weight lifts from the ground, the crane operator is in charge of the operation safety. When the operator has reason to suspect the lift is dangerous or unsafe, he must refuse to proceed until the problem is noticed by the supervisor, any hazards should address, and safe conditions confirm.
CRANES CONDITIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES:
The owner or authority who holds cranes has to do these necessary checks to avoid any problems on the construction sites.
- They should provide the crane, which is suitable for the required work on the site.
- The crane should be well-maintain and do not need any repair at the time of lifting and transferring objects.
- Before each operation, proper documentation requires to address the necessity of which types of crane are used for work and the condition of the crane.
The operator and supervisor also need to develop knowledge of using cranes to keep a safe environment.
- The particular model of crane they operate, its characteristics, functions, and limitations.
- The information is in the crane operating manual.
- The crane load chart includes all notes and warnings and determines the actual net capacity of the crane in every possible configuration.
- Proper inspection and maintenance procedures should follow.
- Any site conditions that may affect crane operation, including the presence of overhead powerlines.
- Basic load rigging procedures.
- Record in the logbook all inspection, maintenance, and work done on the crane in the field.
- Check that the site prepares for crane operation.
- Review the plans and requirements of the lifts with site supervision.
- Follow the manufacturing operating instructions following the load chart.
- Consider all factors that may reduce crane capacity and adjust the load weight accordingly.
- Operate in a smooth, controlled, and safe manner.
- Shut down and secure the machine properly when leaving it unattended.
Site supervisors are responsible for all kinds of operations on the site.
- Supervise all work involving the crane.
- Determine the correct load weight and radius and inform the operator.
- Ensure that the rigging crew is experienced and capable of establishing weights; judging distances, heights, and clearances; selecting tackle and lifting gear suitable to loads; rigging the load safely and securely.
- Supervise the rigging crew.
- Ensure that the load is rig.
- Ensure that signalers can give direction to the crane and load, including using international hand signals where other forms of communication are impossible.
- Designate signalers and identify them to the operator.
- Ensure the safety of the rigging crew and other personnel affected by crane operations.
- Keep the public and all non-essential personnel clear of the crane during operation.
- Control the movements of all personnel in the area affected by the lift.
- Ensure all required precautions when the lift is near powerlines.
- All workers need to be aware of their responsibility and their participation in the safety of each lift.
CRANES DAMAGE PRECAUTION:
It is a necessary task to know about the precaution of any danger. Almost 50% of the crane accidents happen due to mistakes during setting or dismantling the cranes on site. That is why it is foremost to give special attention before, ongoing, and after conditions of the crane operations.
Rigging is a method of shifting and lifting objects from one place to another with the help of cranes. The rigger is a device, which connected the crane with the load. Rigging is also a significant part of cranes operations because a simple mistake can become a disaster. Riggers have to plan operations before practically doing work on site. There are a few rules which need to follow for rigging.
- Supervisors and riggers have complete training and knowledge of rigging.
- All the weight needs to monitor before placing them on the crane and using specific rigging. The load that is more than the rigging capacity is only placed for testing purposes.
- Before each operation or lift, determine the total weight of the object.
- Every part of the crane, hoisting, and rigging equipment should be checked properly before use.
- Immediately, stop the operation when any chances of accidents appear. Accidents can cause by weather conditions like extreme cold, windy weather, extreme sunlight, then any mechanical problem during work.
- Always use the right rigging equipment for each job. In the rigging training, workers use the right equipment for the right weight. These tools include shackles, blocks, pulleys, rigging hooks, wire ropes, synthetic slings, and more.
- It is necessary to understand that working with objects like these is hazardous. The risk is not only the weight that can fall from the height which it falls on workers. It can crush and take the life of workers on the site.
- To avoid all of it, employers and employees need training, planning, and providing safe lifts each time.
All the people who work on these sites with heavy machinery need to have professional training. And full awareness of the hazards these machines can make. Familiarity with these things can save lives and money.